Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Citing an Online Video with Chicago Authorâ€Date Referencing

Refering to an Online Video with Chicago Authorâ€Date Referencing Refering to an Online Video with Chicago Authorâ€Date Referencing Already, we saw how to refer to an online video utilizing Chicago’s commentary referencing. Be that as it may, The Chicago Manual of Style likewise sets out an authorâ€date referencing framework. So to ensure we’ve considered every contingency, this time we’re taking a gander at refering to an online video authorâ€date style. In-Text Citations As a matter of first importance, references. Similarly as with any source in Chicago authorâ€date referencing, refering to an online video implies giving the creator’s family name and a date of distribution in sections: A few historical centers are presently returning taken ancient rarities (Colwell 2018). Here, we’re refering to a TED Talk by Chip Colwell that was transferred to YouTube in 2018. We’ve refered to Colwell for this situation since gives the introduction, however with certain recordings you might need to refer to the essayist or executive. Everything relies upon who the primary maker is. The primary contrast from refering to a print source comes while citing a video. Without page numbers to refer to, you’ll need to incorporate a timestamp for the piece of the video refered to: Examining these profits, he portrays this as â€Å"plant[ing] seeds of expectation in the remnants of the past† (Colwell 2018, 7:18). Here, for example, we can see that the statement originates from 7 minutes and 18 seconds into the video. Extra source data will at that point be given in the reference list toward the finish of the report. Reference List At the point when you add an online video to your reference show, you have to give enough data to perusers to discover it themselves. This ought to incorporate at any rate a large portion of the accompanying: Family name, First Name. Year of distribution. â€Å"Video title.† Host site. Arrangement, video length. Uploader name (if not the same as maker). Date of access (whenever required). URL. You probably won't have the option to discover this data, however this is fine as long as the video is anything but difficult to distinguish (remember that URLs now and then change, so you need something beyond a connection). To perceive how this would glance practically speaking, we’ll make a reference for the video refered to above: Colwell, Chip. 2018. â€Å"Why historical centers are returning social fortunes | Chip Colwell.† YouTube. Video, 13:01. TED. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUUP2MMz7PU. We refer to Chip Colwell as the creator above, however we likewise incorporate TED as the uploader. This is on the grounds that the video is facilitated on the TED YouTube channel.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Criminal Justice Field Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Criminal Justice Field - Case Study Example As per her announcement, it is very evident that she knew about her significant other's propensity for taking and showed that he was doing it so as to help them. A portion of the taken things were likewise recorded in the announcement related to Whitehead's remarks on to their possession (Charlene Marie Whitehead v. Record No. 080775, 2). Nonetheless, during the preliminary in Circuit court for the city of Danville, Whitehead upbraided all that she had shown in her announcement. She felt free to guarantee that she didn't think about Walden's propensity for breaking into individuals' vehicles. Rather all she knew was that Walden came back with a lot of things including cash. Be that as it may, during the questioning, Whitehead conceded that the things took back to the condo by Walden were not his. In a negating articulation, Walden denied having never given Whitehead any taken thing however he confessed on the issue. From the gave explanations, the preliminary court chose to unite Whitehead's forty reprobations to thirty two means tolerating taken things from her significant other (Charlene Marie Whitehead v. Record No. 080775, 3). Consequently, the court passed a decision for each tally. Later on, during a condemning hearing the thirty two checks were decreased to six tallies whereby Whitehead was condemned to multi year's detainment with four years suspended on each tally, for an aggregate of 30 years detainment with 24 years suspended. In any case, the preliminary court retained the condemning on the staying 26 checks adapted on 25 years of good conduct. Showing up under the steady gaze of another adjudicator in a similar court who had been asked by the republic to drop her suspension, Whitehead confessed for disregarding her probation. Subsequently, the preliminary court dropped its earlier suspension and condemned her to seventeen years, four months of detainment with 12 years, four months suspended, for an aggregate of 5 years notwithstanding her sentences of the new conviction (Charlene Marie Whitehead v. Record No. 080775, 4). The court of requests affirmed the new feelings and the disavowal request in an unpublished sentiment showing that the proof was satisfactory to help the court's condemning. From the data got, I will in general can't help contradicting the court of request's decision on Whiteheads case; affirming Whitehead's feelings and the preliminary court's request for renouncement of her probation. This is because of the way that the district never fought that Whitehead was engaged with the real robbery of things or that she got the taken properties from Walden. In spite of the fact that, there was some repudiating data from Walden with respect to her mindfulness on the taken things, the court of offer ought to have gone above and beyond and research the case. Jeffrey Wayne Rowe v. Record No. 081173 Case It was around 1:30 am on July 9, 2005 when Officer Brian J. Reasonable of the Virginia Beach police division saw a truck being driven carelessly. Right now, he was in his dim blue uniform and was driving his own vehicle on his way home. He quickly reached the Virginia Beach police dispatcher mentioning for the warning of the episode to the Virginia state police since he accepted that the truck driver (Rowe) was smashed. Be that as it may, he was educated that there were no accessible state police

Monday, July 27, 2020

The Future of Work

The Future of Work When I was in high school one of the most influential non-fiction books that I read was Studs Terkels Working (which was subtitled, People Talk About What They do All Day and How They Feel About What they Do). This landmark book provides profiles of the inner work life of hundreds of people in hundreds of different professions from hair dressers to Hollywood directors to auto mechanics and constructor workers and teachers. Working had a profound affect on me as I thought about work, and the basic human factors in what we bring to and need from our work. The one story that stayed with me for many years was called Car Hiker, a profile of Al, a man who for thirty years, parked cars in a garage. HIs nickname was One Swing Al, as he could get any car into any parking space with one turn, using one arm. He never missed. He took great pride in this and through the prism of the dailiness of parking cars, knew more about human behavior and human foibles just by observing people in relation to their cars and how they treated the person who parked their car. Thirty years after Terkels landmark book, I found myself completely drawn to MIT Sloan Professor Tom Malones book The Future of Work. The title alone is enough for me to want to dive in and think about what work will mean for future generations, and how much the nature of work itself has changed dramatically through the 20th century. Now as the first decade of the 21st century is more than half over, just what is the future of work? Malone spoke at Sloans Back to the Classroom series in 2005, a little more than a year after the book was published. In it he talks about how the cost of communication is the single most influential factor in how we work, from the decision making process to working in global e-lance economies, to thinking about asking more for advice than approval. He cites some interesting examples of empowerment in the workforce and projects an optimistic view of the future. Malone heads up the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence whose central goal is to address the question: How can people and computers be connected so thatâ€"collectivelyâ€"they act more intelligently than any individuals, groups, or computers have ever done before? After 30 years, Terkels Working still holds up, its a great read. I suspect in 2034 well be able to go back to The Future of Work and say the same thing.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The State of Nature in Hobbes´ Leviathan - 1062 Words

In his text, Leviathan, Hobbes argues that the generation of all states ,regardless of what type of state, comes from the need to escape a common fear among all men. In other words, there is generally no great difference between one type of state from the other in terms of the ends that such states seek to achieve. The generation of all states, ,principalities or republics, comes from the common fear of what Hobbes dubs â€Å"the state of nature† (54). The state of nature is essentially life in an anarchic society without a government where every man is free to act upon his own desires, passions, appetites, and aversions without a law to regulate them (43). Life , is thus, a â€Å"war of every man against every man† because the law that prevails is one of self-preservation, survival, and maximization of self-interests (54). The ultimate goal under such a state is to escape it and the only way to do so is through the generation of a social contract between all men. The essence of this contract can be summarized in two points: firstly, that all men give up their equal predisposition to kill one another and/or rule one another. Secondly, that all men transfer their rights and their collective goal of achieving peace and security to a sovereign office that can achieve these goals by upholding the social contract through fear, punishment, and consent (76). It is the mixture of these two points that generates the Hobbesian Leviathan or the state whose head is the sovereign office andShow MoreRelatedThomas Hobbes State of Nature in Leviathan Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagesthat grew from them. However, in Thomas Hobbes Leviathan we see a departure from this inequality. The argument of people being equal and the state of man that he develops from that belief are central not only to his own theory but to the world of political science today. It is his examination of people being equal, followed by the state of nature and war, and finally his look at various laws of nature that lead a natural path to his political solution. Hobbes assertion that all people are equal isRead MoreThomas Hobbes State of Nature in Leviathan Essay847 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the view Thomas Hobbes presents within the selected passaged in the Leviathan, we live in a narcissistic society where man’s condition is primarily driven by ego and where the achievement of personal goals is deemed paramount. Within the State of Nature that is, outside of civil society we have a right to all things ‘even to one another’s body’, and there would be no agreed authority to ensure the moral grounds of our decisions. Therefore since there are no restrictions and no sharedRead MoreState of Nature and Freedom: Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes1424 Words   |  6 PagesState of Nature and Freedom In the Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes places limits on the freedom of individuals in the social contract, as well as individuals in the state of nature. Hobbes writes that in the state nature, â€Å"the liberty each man hath to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature; doing anything which, in his own judgement and reason, he shall conceive to be the aptest means there unto† (ch. 14,  ¶1). An individual’s will is only free when there is no extraneousRead MoreDo Metaphors Really Matter?1208 Words   |  5 Pageswill be the metaphor used by the famous English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, in his famous book, â€Å"Leviathan† which was published in 1651. Thomas Hobbes and the Leviathan Thomas Hobbes was a philosopher who had his interests based mainly on political affairs. As stated earlier, his most famous piece of work, â€Å"Leviathan† was a platform through which Hobbes expressed his ideas of how an ideal state ought to look like. The term â€Å"Leviathan† is used in the Bible in the book of Job, where the creature is describedRead MoreDefinition Of Human Nature In Hobbess Leviathan1191 Words   |  5 PagesHobbes’ conception of human nature as detailed in Leviathan is largely influenced by his first-hand experiences in 17th century England. As detailed in lecture, Hobbes’ life was characterized by constant fear, which reached its apex during the English Civil War. During the conflict, he saw a society with no clear sovereign power ripping itself apart in a state of absolute war. Published at the end of the War, Hobbes’ Leviathan details his thoughts on the importance of a clearly defined sovereignRead MoreThe Leviathan Vs. H obbess Ideal Society910 Words   |  4 PagesIn contrast to Locke, many believe Hobbes’ political philosophy is rather pessimistic and cynical. Hobbes’ Leviathan argues that civil peace can only be achieved by the establishment of a commonwealth through the social contract. Unlike Locke’s democracy ruled by the majority, Hobbess ideal society is ruled by a sovereign power that’s only duty is to protect the commonwealth, he says that the sovereign needs absolute authority to ensure the common defense. He uses the example of an artificial personRead MoreThomas Hobbes Philosophical Political Piece1317 Words   |  6 PagesThomas Hobbe s philosophical political piece The Leviathan argues that society functions most effectively if all state and commonwealth is delegated by an all powerful sovereign, and that without it we are in a state of chaos, otherwise titled by Hobbes as the state of nature (Thomas Hobbes, 2002, p. 181). I will argue that it is not possible to acknowledge what life is like in the state of nature without fully acknowledging that life in the state of nature leads to an all-powerful sovereignRead MoreThomas Hobbes s Views On Human Nature And His Ideal Government1540 Words   |  7 PagesThomas Hobbes describes his views on human nature and his ideal government in Leviathan. He believes human nature is antagonistic, and condemns man to a life of violence and misery without strong government. In contrast to animals, who are able to live together in a society without a coercive power, Hobbes believes that men are unable to coexist peacefully without a greater authority because they are confrontational by nature. â€Å"In the nature of man†, Hobbes says â€Å"there are three principal causesRead MoreJohn Locke And Thomas Hobbes886 Words   |  4 Pagesand Thomas Hobbes. In, Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes, and in, The Second Treatise of Government, by John Locke different theories of political legitimacy and definitions of the state of nature are described. The following paragraphs analyze multiple different points that are imperative to understanding these political theories. In the reading, Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes discusses what human existence is in the state of nature and the state of war. As it is described, the state of nature explains howRead MoreHobbes And The Natural State Of Nature Essay1514 Words   |  7 PagesThomas Hobbes political philosophy lies in his delineations of two distinct conditions which men can reside in; the state of nature, and the commonwealth led by a sovereign, otherwise referred to as the Leviathan. In order to illustrate how the former state gives way to the latter, Hobbes constructs a perception of nature in which the lives of men are riddled with ambiguity, fear, and distrust. He proposes, then, that the optimal civil society is not constructed by embracing the natural state of man

Friday, May 8, 2020

Public Policy Concerning Education During Prisons

Public policy concerning education in prisons decisively emphasizes punitive programming over rehabilitate or educational programming. In regards to higher education in prisons the persuasive public echo of â€Å"why should criminals get for free what the rest of us pay for† is a falsehood built on the backs of these rulings. I would argue that the education paid for through incarceration entails a greater personal cost of freedoms than a paid tuition could ever represent. I doubt anyone would ever go to prison to obtain a â€Å"free† education. The ever-increasing costs of higher education invoke a regime of scarcity that produces anxiety within the working and middle class. Higher education no longer represents automatic future economic security, furthering social fear. I would argue against the elimination of higher education in prisons; research shows that prison education reduces recidivism rates and improves public safety (Chappell). Education behind bars means a greater likelihood of post-release employment. Post-release employment means stability and independence. Stability and independence mean a lower chance of recidivism. Criminal justice researchers Richard Tewksbury and Kenneth Stengel conclude a more abstract benefit of prison education than just reducing recidivism, â€Å"Participation in educational programs yields a positive influence on the psychological well-being of inmates, reduces rule infractions, and enrolled inmates serve as role models to other inmates†Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of School Policies And Analysis Strategies1177 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"During the last twenty years, schools across the nation have dropped their values for suspending and expelling students. The subsequent trends in punitive policy enforcement are conspicuous in a great number of states. â€Å"The national number of suspensions has increased from approximately 1.7 million in 1974 to more than 3.3 million in 2006. More recently, dur ing the 2009–2010 school year, a reported 3,081,240.55 children were suspended at least once. With reference to expulsions nationally, in 2006Read MoreAmerican Incarceration : Where We Are, And What Can Be Done?1518 Words   |  7 Pagesperformed the duty of safeguarding the public from those too dangerous to be left unsupervised to a business model concerned more with generating a profit for shareholders. With a 500% increase in inmates that is rivalled by no other country, the United States leads the world in imprisoning a fast-growing portion of its population. It is without a doubt that adverse changes in policy regarding imprisonment along with the formation and privatization of the prison industrial complex contributes substantiallyRead MoreThe Price Our Youth Are Paying Essay1431 Words   |  6 Pages Pipeline to Prison: The Price Our Youth Are Paying Dreux Jordan Angelo State University School-to-Prison Pipeline â€Å" They are suspending little Steven for three days, and he isn’t allowed to come back to class until we have a meeting with the principal,† said one of my coworkers in a conversation about the ongoing issues concerning her five-year-old son and his school. Steven is a five-year-old African-American boy in kindergarten who has been disciplined and suspendedRead MoreLowering the Risk of Spreading HIV1269 Words   |  5 Pages(Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Risks that can lead to having HIV include sexual activity, drug use, blood transfusion and pregnancy. Prisons hold a huge risk to inmates, and have many high risk behaviors including unprotected sexual activity, and intravenous drug use. More than 2 million people in the United States are incarcerated in federal prisons and local jails. In 2008, 20,449 state prisoners and 1,538 federal prisoners, a total of 21, 987 male and female prisoners were reported to beRead MorePrinciples of Mental Health1258 Words   |  5 Pagesmethods, and principles of program development and service delivery as well as the range of available mental health service delivery and the clinical mental health services network (CACREP, 2012). It also includes the knowledge of crisis intervention during disasters and other traumatic events. It furthermore includes the principles, models, and documentation formats of biopsychosocial case conceptualization and treatment planning. It recognizes the role and importan ce of family and social networks andRead MoreCalifornia Politics And Government : A Practical Approach1444 Words   |  6 Pagesexplanations that help the students understand the California politics. It includes budgetary politics and policies, California law and court cases, government regulations, policymaking and elections in terms of political parties and interest groups. It addresses the economic, educational, immigration and social issues and theireffecton the politics. Students are able to familiarize with the public policy coverage; hence, make a connection between the effects and practical applications of legislation andRead MoreAdjustment Of The United States1341 Words   |  6 Pagesservices, education, health, and alternative programs for immigrants, particularly black immigrants. In the conversations that surround this cranky subject, attention has targeted on variety of policy problems, from the immigrants working class participation to their significant dependence on welfare. Amongst the fray, kids that are lacking balloting powers and are unable to settle on wherever they live are seen mostly as invisible. Though a lot of of the general public dialogue concerning immigrationRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Age Of Exploration1568 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the Age of Exploration, Africans did not designate themselves as Blacks; however, Europeans used the term â€Å"blacks† to differentiate themselves. At first, there were a number of competing images of Africans, eventually those images crystallized into a small set of overly simplified, negative stereotypes widely shared in the west (Battle Wells, 2006). Early on, Africans were regarded on a relatively equal level to the Europeans. However, by the end of the eighteenth-century images of Af ricansRead MoreReasonable Accommodation Expectations Regarding The Topics Of Religion And Disability1093 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction. In this paper, I will be discussing reasonable accommodation expectations concerning the topics of religion and disability. I will begin by first discussing the reasonable accommodation expectations, pertaining to both religion and disability. I will than discuss who enforces these expectations. Lastly, I will discuss two private sector workplaces that provide reasonable accommodations for religion and disability. The Accommodations. Under the Americans with Disabilities ActRead MoreZero Tolerance Policies Are Ineffective And Creates More Harm Than Good For High School Education Essay1314 Words   |  6 Pagesaspects concerning zero-tolerance policies in high school education. The use of reports, mental development research, and examples will provide sufficient evidence that zero tolerance policies are ineffective and creates more harm than good for high school students. To address the need for attention, alternative recommendations will provide positive results if adopted and implemented correctly in school districts. No to Zero-Tolerance Policies in High Schools Education Even though the public education

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Invictus Free Essays

The movie Invictus taught a lesson of reconciliation, forgiveness, and unity. It was mainly based on one of many Nelson Mandela achievements which was to unite South Africa with the game of Rugby. Invictus took place in 1995, when South Africa was divided into black ands whites. We will write a custom essay sample on Invictus or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years and was elected as the first black President of South Africa. Mandela who was played by Morgan Freeman join forces with Pienaar; Matt Damon’s character, who was also the captain of South Africa’s rugby team; Springboks. The both of them worked together to try and win the World Cup championship and inspire South Africa, even when Pienaar was faced with much backlash from his team and family. Many of the whites in this movie and as well as those black supporters of Mandela, expected that Mandela as President would be an excellent outlet for revenge for those who were brutalized, humiliated and oppressed under the years of apartheid. However, Nelson Mandela was different, he had overcome the prejudice and hate and did not succumb to such attitude, he didn’t allow it.He know that such actions wouldn’t benefit his country. Nelson was a leader, he was about reconstructing South Africa into a better nation. He went into office with a goal of reconciliation, which began with forgiveness. He first offered jobs to all those who were employed by the previous president, even those same ones who helped imprisoned him. The sport of Rugby, and the Springboks in general were considered symbols and a constant reminder of apartheid to the blacks of South Africa.They wanted to disband the team and start fresh, but Nelson Mandela felt that such actions would only hurt his country more that it already was. So with the help of him and his encouragement the Springboks remained South Africa’s national team, and with his order they helped coached various clinics throughout the country. Eventually Rugby, was South Africa’s national. And when South Africa finally made it to the World cup, their entire country, both black and white, young and old, rich and poor cheered them on.Over all the movie was enjoyable. Morgan Freeman as Mandela and Matt Damon as Pienaar playing the role of a mentor and a motivational coach to his team and his family; the both of them coming together for one cause of uniting everyone, was an inspiring story. However, as far as the rugby scenes being shot, I felt that the action on the field was a little off. I really don’t know much about this sport to well and quite don’t understand the game itself but to me they just didn’t look the part.This movie had taught me and informed me more of Mandela and his actions in this light. It showed me how sports can also unify people. With forgiveness in your heart, as well as determination things are possible. We see the bond between Mandela and Pienaar, who were faced with obstacles but yet they succeeded at their goal. We see the relationship between Nelson Mandela’s security team. We see the Rugby team, majority white, reaching out to their community. And most of all we see the nation of South Africa rallying as one. Overall good movie with good elements. How to cite Invictus, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Music Appreciation Final Exam Essay Example

Music Appreciation Final Exam Paper A melodic line that moves by small intervals is called consonant false A second melody played against the first is called a countermelody true In scientific terms, pitch is determined by its frequency true Melody is a concept that occurs only in Western music false The distance between two pitches is called an interval The high point of a melodic line is considered its cadence false The term referring to the overall shape of a melody is contour A succession of single tones or pitches perceived as a unit is called a melody The distance between the highest and lowest tones of a melody is called the range Twinkle Twinkle little star is an example of triple meter false Melodies that move principally by small, connected intervals are conjunct true Beats that are more strongly emphasized than others are said to be accented In triple meter, the strongest pulse occurs on the first beat Meter is marked off in groupings known as measures Meters in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two are known as compound meters Music that moves without a strong sense of a beat or a meter is called nonmetric Organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called meters The deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called syncopation The element of music that organizes movement in time is rhythm The first accented beat of a measure is called downbeat A collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order is called scale A combonation of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called a chord A combination of tones that is discordant and unstable produces a consonance false An interval spanning eight notes is called an octave The distance and relationship between two tones is refer to as an interval A triad is the most common chord type found n western music, a three note chord, built on alternate scale steps, The first note of the scale is called the tonic A combination of tones that sounds discordant, unstable, or in need of resolution is called a dissonance The principle organization around a central tone is called tonality A triad is a chord made up of three tones true The smallest interval in the Western musical system is the half step A 12 tone scale, including all semitones of the octave is called chromatic The musical symbol # represents a sharp On the piano, the black key between the white keys C and D is called C-sharp or D-flat The triad built on the first note of the scale is called the tonic In harmon, the___is considered a place of rest and return tonic The three basic triads in the Western musical system are the tonic, the dominant, and the subdominant A sharp lowers a musical tone by a half step false A key is a group of related tones with a common center, the tonic, toward which the other tones gravitate True A major scale can begin on any of the twelve semitones of the octave true The element that describes the musical fabric, or the relationship of musical lines within a work, is called texture A texture featuring a single, unaccompanied line is called monophonic When a melody is combined with an ornamental version of itself, often heard in jazz, the resulting texture is heterophony When two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is called polyphony A texture in which a single voices takes over the melodic interest while the accompanying voices are subordinate is called homophony The texture in which all the voices move in the same rhythm is called homrhythm In imitation, a melodic idea in one voice is restated in another true What quality of a work of art refuses to its structure or shape The basic structural concepts in the element form are repetition and contrast A vocal work in which each poetic stanza is sung to the same melody in strophic form The technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as improvisation The form based on a statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening statement binary A sining style that features a leader who is imitated by a group is called call and response Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-C true The rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its tempo Music that sounds despairing and sad usually has a ____ tempo slow In what language are tempo marking generally given italian Which of the following tempo markings does NOT indicate a slow tempo presto The degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called dynamics Which of the following dynamic markings markings is the softest pianissimo (pp) The term non lexical refers to a text that consists of nonsense syllables Scat-singing is a common in jazz The language of the Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church through most of history was Latin The setting of one note per syllable is called syllabic The extended melodic line on the word rejoice in Handels Messiah is a melisma The use of a few notes for each syllable is called neumatic The term song technically refers to all music, with out without words False Vocal music must use recognizable words False The vernacular is a common language of the people true The quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another is timbre The term timbre refers to the color of a tone A specific area within the range of a voice or instrument, such as high, middle, or low, is called its register The standard ranges of the human voice, from highest to lowest, are soprano, alto, tenor, bass The generally accepted term for the high male vocal range is tenor Instruments that produce sounds by using air s the vibrating means are called aerophones Instruments that produce sounds from a vibrating string are called chordophones How do performers cause idiophones to produce sounds by shaking, scraping, or striking the instrument itself Drum-type instruments fall into the category of membranophones Throughout history, the voice has been a model for instrumentalists and instrument builders True Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones false The history of Western music begins Which of the following institutions supported Renaissance society the church, the city and state, the aristocratic courts Most of the surviving music from the early Middle Ages is secular false Which of the following does NOT characterize plainchant triadic harmonies A setting of Gregorinan chant with one note or syllable is called syllabic Which of the following women was a religious leader and prominent figure in literature and music Hildegard of Bingen On which liturgical occasion was Hildegards Alleluia, O virgo mediatrix sung a feast day for the Virgin Mary The knowledge of early civilizations and the culture of the Middle Ages were preserved largely in monasteries true The order of church services and the structure of each service are known as liturgy true The earliest type of polyphony was organum The first major center of polyphony was Notee Dame Cathedral in Paris Which of the following does NOT describe Gaude Maria virgo accompaniment with musical instruments Each musical line in Gaude Maria virgo has the same rhythmic activity false Organum was freely composed, with no preexisting basis false The tradition of troubadours and trouveres developed in france Which of the following was NOT a subject reflected in the poems of the troubadours and trouveres the rebirth of classical learning During the 14th century, a style of music developed that became known as the Ars nova The outstanding composer-poet of the Ars nova was Machaut The french courtly love song of the middle ages was called the chanson Troubadours and trouveres were medieval musicians often living on the fringes of society false The expressive device that Renaissance composers used to pictoralize words musically called word-painting Where was the madrigal first developed Italy Madrigals with simpler and more accessible text were especially favored in England Which of the following best described the character of Farmers Fair Phyllis pastoral and light Who invented the printing press Johannes Gutenberg Only professional musicians performed secular music during the Renaissance False The two most important genres of Renaissance secular music were the chanson and the madrigal true Which of the following characterizes humanism thinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, independence from tradition and religion Which genres of vocal music was NOT used in Renaissance church services the chansons What is the cantus firmus a fragment of Gregorian chant or a secular tine used as the foundation of polyphonic mass Which early Renaissance composer exerted a powerful influence on generations of composer who followed Josquin des Prez Josquins Ave Mariavirgo serena is an example of motet The text Ave Mariavirgo serena is in praise of the Virgin Mary The Renaissance motet is a sacred genre with a single Latin text True The Roman Catholic Church service that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is the Mass The portion of the Mass that remains in every celebration of the service is called the Ordinary What was the primary language of the Mass Latin Which of the following are the movements of the Ordinary of the Mass Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Angus Dei Which of the following was a leader in the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther After the Protestant Reformation of the early 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its people. This was known as: the Counter-Reformation Which of the following does NOT characterize music after the 1600 instrumental music was neglected The approximate dates of the Baroque period are 1600-1750 The Baroque period witnessed a shift in a musical texture to The artificially created male soprano or alto voice that dominated Baroque opera was known as the castrato The term baroque originally meant security and balance fasle A staged drama that is sung is called an opera A highly emotional song in an opera is called an aria the text of an opera is called the libretto Purcells opera Dido and Aeneas was composed for a production at a girls school The aria When I am laid in earth is unified by a ground bass on a descending chromatic scale true Luther believed that music belonged to the congregation In the Lutheran Church, the weekly hymns sung by the congregation were called chorales The expansion of the chorale with new poetry resulted in the cantata During his musical career, Johann Sebastian Bach held the position of cantor of St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, court organist and chamber musician to the duke of Weimar, court musician to the price of the Anhalt-Cothen Bachs Cantana NO 140, Wachet auf, has____ movements seven Lutheran believed that professional musicians had no place in the church service false Handels Messiah is an oratorio The stories for oratorios are generally drawn from The Bible Why was lining-out, the practice of call and response singing from the 17th centurial New England developed? most people could not read music, most people could not afford to by a pslam book, the church wanted everyone to participate equally in services William Billings best known publication is The New England Pslam-SInger Interest in Greek and Roman antiquity during the 18th century greatly influenced painting, archiecture, literature Which american president was a leading figure during the classical period Thomas Jefferson The classical period in music ranged from approx 1750-1825 Which of the following composers was NOT a master of the Viennese school Chopin Which of the following best describes the lyrical melodies of the Classical period conjunct, diatonic, and singable The system in which the aristocracy sponsored musicians is called patronage A composer can fragment a theme by dividing it into smaller units called motives In musical compositions, a theme is a musical idea that is used as a building block Which of the following best describes absolute music music without a story or text Which movement is the most highly organized and most characteristic multi movement cycle, usually presented in sonata form first Which of the following is a common characteristic of the second movement of the multi movement cycle lyrical, songful melodies In the classical multi movement cycle, the third movement is usually in ____form minute and trio A rondo is most typically found in the _____ last movement of a classical multi movement cycle last A string quartet consists of 2 violins, viola, cello The form of the slow movement of Haydns String Quartet, OP. 76, NO 3 is: theme and variations Who was Haydns principal patron Prince Esterhazy Mozarts Eine kleine Nachtmusik serenade The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, the development, and the recapitulation What is the function of the bridge or transition in sonata-allegro form The climax of sonata-allegro form appear when the tonic returns at the recapitulation A musical setting of the Mass for the dead is called a Requiem Mozarts Requiem was his last work, incomplete at his death The Dies irae text from the Requiem Mass describes Judgement day Which of the following correctly describes the musical forces for Mozarts Requiem winds, brass, strings, timpani, choir, and four soloists The_____ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozarts Requiem trombone The text of Mozarts Requiem is sung in Latin During the 19th century, the Mass was sung only in church false Mozart died before finishing the Requiem, and one of his students completed the work for him true How did comic opera differ from opera seria it was sung in the vernacular, it presented down to earth plots, it featured ensembles as well as solo singing Mozarts librettist for Don Giovanni was Lorenzo de Ponte Which of the following descriptions characterizes the story of Don Giovanni It mixes elements of opera seria and opera buffa Don Giovanni attempts to console Donna Elvira, who has been betrayed by Don Giovanni himself The catalogue Aria from Mozarts Don Giovanni lists Don Giovannis conquests Comic opera generally was sung in the language of the audience, or the vernacular true Which of the following was NOT a favored sonata instrumentation during the late 18th century piano and trumpet Beethoven suffered from perhaps the most traumatic of all maladies for a musician. What was it? deafness Beethovens Piano Sonata in C sharp minor, OP 27, NO 2, was subtitled Moonlight by The poet Rellstab, shortly after the composers death Beethovens career is often divided into ____ compositional periods three Which composer both maintained and disrupted the balance of the classical style Beethoven With which symphony did Beethoven begin to expand the possibilities of the genre NO 3 The Ode to Joy is the finale of Beethovens Symphony NO 9 Which of the following best describes the opening idea of Beethovens Symphony NO 5 A four note motive Beethoven abondoned Classical principles in composing his symphonies false Beethoven wrote his two symphonies in a style similar to that of Haydn and Mozart True In spite of numerous innovations, Beethovens Symphony NO 5 has the standard four movements of the Classical symphony true Which of the following is identified as the first great creative Romantic Beethoven Which of the following does NOT describe Romanticism The 19th century saw the rise of a new social order shaped by the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution The democratic character of the Romantic moment is illustrated by sympathy for the oppressed, interest in folk culture, faith in human kind and its destiny During the 29th century, concert life began to center of the public concert hall Which of the following does NOT describe orchestra of the 19th century the size of the orchestras decreased, making for more compact ensembles A song whose text is a short lyric poem in German with piano accompaniment is called a Lied Which of the following was NOT a typical theme of Romantic Poetry praise of the virgin mary A song form in which the same melody is repeated for every stanza of text is called strophic A song that is composed from beginning to end without repetition of whole sections is called through composed Schubert and his friends organized evening gatherings or artists, writers, an musicians, called: Schubertiads Which of the musical devices does Shubert use to portray the childs terror in Elfking high range and dissonance Schuberts sing Elfking is a setting of a ballad written by Goethe Which 19th century American composer is best remember for his parlor songs and minstrel show tunes Stephen Foster Which of the following best describes minstrelsy shows that featured performers in blackface The form of Fosters Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair is strophic Fosters Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair is based on a poem by Foster himself For the most part, 19th century Americans rejected the music of European culture false Minstrelsy created negative stereotypes of black culture true Foster intended his songs to be performed by professional singers only false Instrumental music endowed with literary, philosophical, or pictorial associations is called program music Which of the following compositions is LEAST likely to be an example of program music String Quartet in B-flat Major Music composed without literary or pictorial meanings is called absolute music Berliozs Symphonie fantastique is an example of an program symphony Which of the following inspired Berliozs Symphonie fantastique the actress Harriet Smithson The Dies Irae is a chant from the Mass for the Dead In the Symphonie fantastique, Berloiz used a recurrent theme that he called the idee fixe, symbolizing the beloved true The finale to the Symphonie fantastique projects a satanic character true The librettist for Wagners music dramas was Wagner himself Wagner chose to base his early opera on medieval German epics Wagners cycle of four music dramas is called The Ring of the Nibelung Wagners total artwork, in which all the arts-music, poetry, drama, visual spectacle are fused together is called the Gesamtkunstwerk In Wagners Ring of the Nibelung, who are the Valkyries the nine daughters of Wotan The artistic trends of the early 20th century can be best characterized as a reaction against Romanticism The center of music publishing in New York was called Tin Pan Alley Which American musician introduced ragtime and early jazz styles to France during WW 1 Scott Joplin The element of melody in 20th century music is best characterized by wide leaps and dissonant intervals Avant-garde artists sought to distinguish themselves from traditional high culture and from mass market tastes true The Depression had little impact on the performing arts false Which of the following describes dissonance It played a large role in 20th century music Which of the following does NOT characterize the musical language of Expressionism extended passages of consonance Music that rejects the framework of key is described as atonal Schoenberg created a new style in which vocal melodies were spoken rather than sung with exact pitches and rhythms. This was known as Sprechstimme Klangfarbenmelodie refers to a style that gives each other note of a melody to a different instrument The melodies in Expressionistic music usually were conjunct false Which of the following music genres developed around the turn of the 20th century and incorporates elements of African music and Western popular and art music jazz Which American city is considered the birthplace of Jazz New Orleans Which instrument did Louis Armstrong play trumpet Louis Armstrongs instrument-like approach to singing is called scat singing Which american jazz composer was a also a pianist and a master of a bid-band orchestration Duke Ellington Bid band swing was the dominant form of American popular music in the 1930s and 1940s true